What Is Accounting? The Basics Of Accounting


Personal property includes tangible items such as cash, cars and computers, as well as intangible items, such as royalties, patents and copyrights. The recognition that NET INCOME for any PERIOD less than the life of the business, although tentative, is still a useful estimate of net income for that period. Amount per share set in the ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION of a CORPORATION to be entered in the CAPITAL STOCKS account where it is left permanently and signifies a cushion of EQUITY capital for the protection of CREDITORS. A series of equal payments made at the end of equal intervals of time, with compound interest on these payments.

Accounting professionals like CPAs or tax advisors can also provide you with knowledge and insight that are simply inaccessible to non-accountants. These experts can offer guidance on tax deductions you didn’t know you qualified for, tax rules you didn’t know you were breaking, and best practices picked up while working for other companies in your industry. Up-to-date financial statements are essential if you want to fund your small business with a loan. A receipt is an official written record of a purchase or financial transaction. Receipts serve as proof that the transaction took place and allow those transactions to be processed for tax purposes. Credits are accounting entries that increase liabilities or decrease assets.

Petty Cash

Period in a business cycle when economic activity picks up and the gross national product grows, leading into the expansion phase of the cycle. Comparison of two numbers to demonstrate the basis for the difference between them. An entity that holds a fixed pool of mortgages and issues multiple classes of interests in itself to investors. A qualified REMIC is generally taxed like a partnership, unless it takes contributions after its start up day or engages in a prohibited transaction. Piece of land and all physical property related to it, including houses, fences, landscaping, and all rights to the air above and earth below the property.

  • Ratio measure of the profits achieved by a firm through its basic operations.
  • Number of shares of stock provided for in the articles of INCORPORATION of a COMPANY.
  • INTEREST that has accumulated between the most recent payment and the sale of a BOND or other fixed-income security.
  • An investment strategy aimed at long-term capital appreciation with low risk; moderate; cautious; opposite of aggressive behavior; show possible losses but wait for actual profits.
  • Accounting is the process of recording, classifying and summarizing financial transactions.
  • Check out our review of QuickBooks accounting software and our Zoho Books review for examples of top software providers.

ASSETS having a physical existence, such as cash, land, buildings, machinery, or claims on property, investments or goods in process. An accelerated method of DEPRECIATION in which the depreciable value if an ASSET is multiplied by a decreasing fraction each year of the asset’s useful life. A percentage used to determine the amount of DEPRECIATION to be recorded each ACCOUNTING period for the straight-line method. ACCOUNTING method that reflects an equal amount of wear and tear during each period of an ASSET’S useful life. For instance, the annual STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION of a $2,500 asset expected to last five years is $500.


Some accounting software is considered better for small businesses such as QuickBooks, Quicken, FreshBooks, Xero, SlickPie, or Sage 50. Larger companies often have much more complex solutions to integrate with their specific reporting needs. Large accounting solutions include Oracle, NetSuite, or Sage products. It may be handled by a bookkeeper or an accountant at a small firm, or by sizable finance departments with dozens of employees at larger companies. The reports generated by various streams of accounting, such as cost accounting and managerial accounting, are invaluable in helping management make informed business decisions. These principles are incorporated into a number of accounting frameworks, from which accounting standards govern the treatment and reporting of business transactions.

  • Most individuals that are in business for themselves, such as SOLE PROPRIETORS, PARTNERS or independent contractor, are subject to self employment taxes.
  • A mandatory system of DEPRECIATION for income tax purposes, enacted by Congress in 1986.
  • But even if this applies to your business, continue to maintain accurate and timely records.
  • Not to be confused with your personal debit and credit cards, debits and credits are foundational accounting terms to know.
  • For example, let’s say your company pays $5,000 in rent each month.

Automation tools save businesses and accountants time by limiting the amount of time they spend on data entry. This gives them more time to analyze data to improve the business. Accountants oversee the financial records for a business and make sure the data is correct. Then, they use this data to create budgets, financial documents, and reports. You’ll learn a lot of business skills on an accounting degree, but it’ll always relate back to money. You’ll spent the first year focusing on core topics that underpin the subject, after which you’ll specialise in areas that interest you – like auditing, tax, or management.

Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services (SSARS)

Fund consisting of ASSETS where the holder agrees to remit the assets, income from the assets, or both, to a specified beneficiary in due course or at a specified time. Company, or other organization related through common ownership, common control of management or owners, or through some other control mechanism, such as a long-term LEASE. Used to measure a company’s ability to collect cash from credit customers. To accountants, the two most important characteristics of useful information are relevance and reliability.

Investor-owned TRUST which invests in real estate and, instead of paying income tax on its income, reports to each of its owners his or her pro rata share of its income for inclusion on their income tax returns. https://investrecords.com/the-importance-of-accurate-bookkeeping-for-law-firms-a-comprehensive-guide/ This unique trust arrangement is specifically provided for in the INTERNAL REVENUE CODE. The lawyer hires the CPA to do the investigation and determine the amount of money stolen or understated.

Time granted by a taxing authority, such as the INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS), a state or city, which allows the taxpayer to file tax returns later than the original due date. Raising the money by issuing shares of COMMON STOCK or PREFERRED STOCK. A way of AMORTIZING BOND DISCOUNTS or PREMIUMS by applying a constant interest rate to the CARRYING VALUE of Navigating Law Firm Bookkeeping: Exploring Industry-Specific Insights the BONDS at the beginning of each interest period. The study of the ways goods and services are produced, transported, sold, and used. Wages, salaries, professional fees, and other amounts received as compensation for services rendered. Auction system in which the price of an item is gradually lowered until it meets a responsive bid and is sold.


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